What are the 10 major hardware components of a computer system?

The Hardware abstraction is a design pattern in which programmers use the architecture of one computer system to create hardware components for another. This is called hardware abstraction. In order to understand hardware abstraction better, you will need to know about the major elements that make up the CPU. They are instruction register, microprocessor, ROM, RAM, video adapter, hard disk, battery, power supply and many other elements. These elements form the basic foundation of any PC or laptop.

What are the 10 major hardware components of a computer system

When you start thinking about how the computer hardware components work together, you will notice that there is a well-defined relationship between them. For instance, an input device may be a mouse, keyboard or touchpad. It is the job of the microprocessor to process these signals and translate them into commands that can be executed in the CPU.

On the other hand, the output devices are called port modules and are used to send signals to other output devices. In order to send instructions to the CPU, it is the interrupt generator that converts these signals into actual instructions to be executed by the CPU.

What are the 10 major hardware components? List Here

1.The Case/Body

The case is the physical enclosure of a computer in which a computer operating system (OS), installed software and peripherals may be inserted into. CPU The central processor (CPU) of a computer is the programmable logic controller of the computer, which performs functions such as memory and system I/O. Processor A microprocessor (aka microprocessor), is a small microprocessor on a single chip.

This little microprocessor is what will power your computer’s main processor. Memory RAM is the most basic and fundamental component of the computer. These are the main type of memory commonly used in personal computers: DDR SDRAM PC-3 2133Mhz PC-12 2300Mhz PC-15 2300Mhz SDRAM SDRAM stands for static random access memory.

2.Central Processing Unit

CPU CPU can be divided into two components: the microprocessor and the memory. A microprocessor can be seen as the brain of a computer, having in most cases 8 to 16 chips and 256-or-more of memory. The operating system is usually downloaded from a PC manufacturer’s website and installed on the system as a complete system.

On the PC level, the microprocessor may be either the Intel processor (x86 processors) or AMD processor (Pentium, Athlon, or Opteron). There are two main categories of microprocessors: instruction-based processors (IBMs, x86 processors) and floating-point processors (AMD processors, Opterons).


Computer monitors have various physical characteristics such as height,width,durability, etc. and are generally rated based on their resolution (which refers to how many colors can be displayed on screen at any given moment). In order to make use of all the information available on a computer monitor, graphics cards are needed. A graphics card converts the video data from the processor into a form which can be displayed on the screen. A display controller is responsible for handling the input from a mouse, keyboard and joystick. A monitor could also have a microphone, speakers, and a camera.


The mouse is one of the most important parts of a computer system. A computer mouse connects to a computer via a cable and computer software. The mouse, or a pointing device, has been around since the 1960s and was originally designed to make it easier to select an item on screen. The earliest type of mouse was a dial or wand-like device used to select a target on the screen.

Later on, after it was discovered that humans could predict where the computer would select the mouse, designers came up with a slightly different design. This was the second design known as the laser mouse which was used in the mid-1980s. CPU In the 1960s, the Intel group became the first successful attempt at creating a commercial microprocessor. What is a microprocessor?


The keyboard is a keypad with rows of individual keys with the letters of the alphabet arranged in a specific order. One example of the usage of the keyboard is typing. You will be surprised at how much time is spent each day simply typing and misspelling words on a computer keyboard.

6.Computer Data Storage

It  maintains electrical stability, preventing the CPU from becoming over-loaded. The most popular motherboard, known as Intel’s LGA 1151, supports the LGA 1151 socket family. This socket is compatible with Intel and AMD CPUs, with motherboard vendors such as Asus, Gigabyte, MSI, and MSI.

What is a microprocessor?

A microprocessor is a special-purpose computer component that has the ability to perform a task such as calculating, interpreting, translating, exchanging information or manipulating data in different forms. It is composed of thousands of transistors packed close together on a silicon chip. The cost of such components makes microprocessors very expensive and was a major factor in the decline of personal computing.

The popular microprocessor, the Intel 8008, had an integrated circuit made by Intel Corporation mounted on a board designed by IBM. What is RAM? The memory on a personal computer is the information storage device most commonly used to store information by a computer.

  • Hard drive
  • Solid-state drive
  • Memory card

7.Graphics Card

CPU Memory Drive System CPU Cooler Hard Disk Drive RAM Modem CPU Power Supply Can I overclock a gaming laptop or desktop? Yes. Generally speaking, any bit of overclocking that goes on on the processor will make the laptop or desktop run hotter, which makes cooling more of an issue.

For lower-end laptops with integrated graphics, there’s not usually a problem. However, if you’re talking about high-end laptops or powerful desktops, and you want to take advantage of some features such as AMD’s Turbo Boost feature and Intel’s Turbo Boost Max Technology 3.0, you may need to keep an eye on the temperature because thermal throttling may occur if you overclock the processor. See:


The motherboard serves as the physical circuit board that hosts all of the critical microchips and sub-chips that comprise the computer system. These chips run the system from the command line interface, referred to as the desktop. The most important functions of a motherboard are that it serves as a conduit for data and can transfer large amounts of information back and forth between the CPU and the rest of the system.

9,10. Sound Card & Speakers

Sound Card & Speakers peripheral devices that play an important role in the operation of the CPU